Comparison of sea-ice and glacial-ice rafted debris

grain size, surface features, and grain shape

Publisher: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif

Written in English
Published: Pages: 82 Downloads: 543
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  • Marine sediments.,
  • Drift.,
  • Sediment transport.,
  • Sea ice.

Edition Notes

Other titlesComparison of sea ice rafted debris.
Statementby Gita Dunhill.
SeriesOpen-file report -- 98-367., U.S. Geological Survey open-file report -- 98-367.
ContributionsGeological Survey (U.S.)
The Physical Object
Pagination82 leaves
Number of Pages82
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL18135207M

speculations ranged from a sea-ice-free Arctic Ocean during glacial maxima2 to one where an extensive and thick ice shelf persisted3–5. In the mids, it was proposed that large portions of the Barents Sea had been covered by a marine ice sheet during the last glacial maximum (LGM)6. In . The book discusses the ideas and creates a framework for building toward a theory of paleoclimate. Using the rich and mounting array of observational evidence of climatic changes from geology, geochemistry, and paleontology, Saltzman offers a dynamical approach to the theory of paleoclimate evolution and an expanded theory of climate. An ice sheet is a chunk of glacier ice that covers the land surrounding it and is greater t kilometers (20, miles) wide. An ice sheet is also known as a continental glacier. During the last glacial period the Laurentide ice sheet covered much of Canada and North America, the Weichselian ice sheet covered Northern Europe, and the Patagonian ice sheet covered much of Southern South. Sea ice and floating glacial ice absorb wave energy and influence wave climate. Evidence for floating glacial ice comes from the gravel component of the diamictite-dominated succession of the AND-2A site (Passchier et al., ); episodic intensification of sea ice coverage is indicated by the presence of sea ice diatoms (Taviani et al Cited by: 8.

  The photo above shows the sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Right now that sea ice is breaking apart and melting. I see an increasing amount of ocean each day. The Arctic: The North Pole is covered by a cold ocean called the Arctic Ocean. In the Arctic Ocean, sea ice grows in the winter and shrinks in the summer. Charting Imaginary Worlds: Pole Shifts, Ice Sheets, and Ancient Sea Kings: A Digression that Simply Got Out of Hand Note: Part 5 was originally posted to a discussion list as "Early Maps," and then reprinted in Aeon V:3 () under the present title. In the last two sentences to the introduction to that version, I wrote: "I haven't spelled it out, because I haven't the time to do the theme. You can write a book review and share your experiences. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. Free ebooks since In the Arctic, the sea-ice area ranges between 9 and 12 x 10 6 km 2 (as opposed to 4 and 19 x 10 6 km 2 around Antarctica). As a comparison, the contiguous USA is about 9 x 10 6 km 2 in size. Much of the Arctic seasonal variation in ice cover can be found in the Bering Sea (mainly adjacent to the continents, and south to the Aleutian Islands.

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Get this from a library. Comparison of sea-ice and glacial-ice rafted debris: grain size, surface features, and grain shape. [Gita Dunhill; Geological Survey (U.S.)].

Sea ice has not always existed in the Arctic and indeed little is known about the sea-ice history of this climatically sensitive region. The recent discovery of ice-rafted debris in middle Eocene. Sedimentation rates, ice-rafted debris, and microfossil and biogeochemical proxies, show repeated abrupt collapses and slow advances typical of the tidewater glacier cycle observed in modern systems.

Dunhill G () Comparison of Sea-Ice and Glacial-Ice Rafted Debris: Grain Size, Surface Features, and Grain Shape. Menlo Park CA, U.S. Department of the Interior; U.S. Iceberg - Iceberg - Iceberg distribution and drift trajectories: In the Antarctic, a freshly calved iceberg usually begins by moving westward in the Antarctic Coastal Current, with the coastline on its left.

Since its trajectory is also turned to the left by the Coriolis force owing to Earth’s rotation, it may run aground and remain stationary for years before moving on. The rock debris is carried along the glacier edge as it moves towards the snout.

medial: ridge of moraine that runs down the center of a valley floor. It forms when two glaciers meet and the debris on the edges of the adjacent valley sides join and are carried on top of the enlarged glacier.

Sea ice forms when water Comparison of sea-ice and glacial-ice rafted debris book the surface of the ocean drops to or below the freezing point. The freezing point of saline water is slightly lower than that of fresh water — about 29 degrees Fahrenheit compared to 32 Comparison of sea-ice and glacial-ice rafted debris book F for fresh water — and, therefore, sea pack ice requires a lower temperature to form than does glacial ice.

sediment dropped by glacial ice, unsorted, unstratified, all sized grains, accumulate beneath glacial ice, at glacial toe or along glacial flanks Erratics boulders dropped from glaciers, different than underlying bedrock, carried from long distances.

ELSEVIER Marine Geology () MA R/NE akr-t;tOal" INTE~NAnON4¢ JOURNAL OF M4RINE G£OLOGY. GEOCNIM~TRY AND G£~ The decay of the Barents ice sheet as documented in nordic seas ice-rafted debris Jens F.

Bischof OM Dominion University, Department of Geological Sciences, Norfolk, VAUSA (Received J ; revision accepted Novem Cited by: From the Neogene, glacially derived ice-rafted debris (IRD) is found in ocean-sediment cores from the North Atlantic region, including the Barents Sea (Moran et al., ), and areas adjacent to Norway, north and southeast Greenland, Iceland, and northern North America, and in the Southern Ocean off Antarctica (De Schepper et al., ), bearing witness to the early glaciations ().Cited by: 5.

In the central Flinders Ranges, the Yudnamutana Subgroup consists of (1) the Pualco Tillite (gravity resedimented glacial deposits), (2) the Holowilena Ironstone (glacioturbidites), (3) poorly stratified pebbly diamictite of the Warcowie Dolomite Member, lowermost Wilyerpa Formation (gravity resedimented glacial deposits), succeeded by (4 Cited by: Glacial ice (including ice caps) forms through the simple accumulation of snow which becomes compressed by its own weight into solid ice.

Sea ice formation is a seasonal phenomenon (although individual pieces of sea ice may last for several years), while glacial ice is generally a long-term structure lasting decades, centuries, or even millennia.

Other features that form on the surface of sea ice are frost flowers, crystals of ice deposited on the sea ice when water vapor bypasses the liquid phase and becomes a flowers roughen the surface and dramatically alter its electromagnetic signal.

If snow cover is thick, especially over relatively thin sea ice, the weight of the snow can push the ice down into the water below. This represents sea ice. Pour water into the sea-ice container until the ice floats. Be sure no ice is resting on the bottom of the tub.

The water shouldn’t be higher than the land level. Without disturbing the ice cubes, pour water into the land-ice container until the water level is about equal to the water level in the sea-ice container. The Snowball Earth hypothesis proposes that during one or more of Earth's icehouse climates, Earth's surface became entirely or nearly entirely frozen, sometime earlier than Mya (million years ago) during the Cryogenian ents of the hypothesis argue that it best explains sedimentary deposits generally regarded as of glacial origin at tropical palaeolatitudes and other enigmatic.

Some time ago, when the Larsen B ice sheet collapsed and broke up, a chap named Svend (can’t remember the last name) with the Danish Environmental people, a glaciologist who actually lives on Greenland, sent me a picture of the collapse part of the Larsen B and next to the broken up part, there was a brand new ice sheet attached to the whole continent, and that piece was as big as the.

The marks are also associated with ice-rafted clasts, likely debris from grounded icebergs, rhythmites, and other glacial features (Rocha-Campos et al.,p. Rocha-Campos et al. (, p. ) admit that these scour marks are smaller than most Pleistocene and modern examples.

The greatest ice mass losses from both modern and palaeo‐ice masses occur at ocean margins (Pritchard et al. ), where ice streams and outlet glaciers interact with the ocean at the transition between grounded and ungrounded ice: the grounding zone (Stokes & Clark ; Rignot et al. ).This zone is a complex area where ice, water and sediments are transferred into the marine Author: Calvin Shackleton, Monica Winsborrow, Karin Andreassen, Renata Giulia Lucchi, Lilja Rún Bjarnadóttir.

Although this is interpreted to indicate episodic ice-free conditions for the central Arctic, the occurrence of ice-rafted debris with the sparse coccoliths is more easily interpreted to represent transportation of coccoliths from ice-free continental seas marginal to the central Arctic.

Antarctica is the center from which all surrounding continental bodies separated millions of years ago. Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World, reinforces the importance of continual changes in the country's history and the impact of these changes on global book also places emphasis on deciphering the climate records in ice cores, geologic cores, rock outcrops and those.

This site is supported by the National Science Foundation under award Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this site are those of the PIs and coordinating team and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Melting Glaciers Are Increasing Extent Of Sea Ice In Antarctica, Says Counterintuitive Study. Cold freshwater from melting Antarctic ice shelves is insulating sea ice from the warming ocean.

As summer draws to a close across the Southern Hemisphere, the extent of sea ice ringing Antarctica has fallen to the lowest values ever observed in satellite records dating back to He said that the ice-rafted debris left deposits of three types: widely scattered rocks and boulders, distinct clusters and "bergmounds" – low, cone-shaped clumps of erratics that, like a moraine left by glaciers, alter the topography.

Bjornstad's group discovered rafted rocks as long as 14 feet. Richard Alley et al. also point out that ice-rafted debris (IRD) cannot occur with ice shelves intact, thus the factor than numerous IRD fields in both the Southern Ocean and the North Atlantic mean the ice-cliff failure mechanism likely occurred in paleo times under conditions similar to.

Bigg GR, Levine RC, Clark CD, Greenwood SL, Haflidason H, Hughes ALC, Nygard A & Sejrup HP () Last glacial ice-rafted debris off southwestern Europe: the role of the British-Irish Ice Sheet. J QUATERNARY SCI, 25(5), Kirbyshire AL & Bigg GR () Is the onset of the English summer advancing?.

CLIMATIC CHANGE, (), Response: Note: the rebuttal above has been updated since this comment was posted, incorporating later references and clarifying that sea ice and land ice are two separate phenomena.

Antarctica is losing land ice at an accelerating ice around Antarctica is increasing. The reasons for sea ice increasing in a warming Southern Ocean are complex and described in detail above.

Thefurther report that their data “indicate sediment rafting word used by Krabill et al. to describe the net balanceby glacial ice, rather than sea ice, and point to East was “zero.”Greenland as the likely source,” and they conclude At lower elevations, thinning was found.

Travel to Antarctica with National Geographic and Oceanites Lindblad Expeditions and its partner National Geographic Society enthusiastically support Oceanites, Inc., a nonprofit, science and educational foundation established in the United States by Ron Naveen in Journal articles. Bigg GR () The impact of icebergs of sub-Antarctic origin on Southern Ocean ice-rafted debris distributions.

Quaternary Science Reviews,; Bigg GR, Zhao Y & Hanna E () Forecasting the severity of the Newfoundland iceberg season using a control systems model. Journal of Operational this article in WRRO. "The comparison with higher-resolution satellite imagery reveals: (a) an overall good corre- spondence of the TM-derived glacier outlines with the manual delineation, (b) mapping of debris-covered glacier ice is not possible with TM data alone, and (c) also manual glacier delineation is problematic in the case of debris cover or snowfields.".

The news last week that summer ice covering the Arctic Ocean was tied for the second-lowest extent on record is a sobering reminder that the planet is swiftly heading toward a largely ice-free Arctic in the warmer months, possibly as early as After that, we can expect the ice-free period in the Arctic basin to expand to three to four months a year, and eventually to five months or more.

thoughts on “ A question to the USGS and NPR ” JinOH says: March 3, at am Glacial episodes and Bond cold events are identified in marine sediments by looking for ice-rafted debris AKA dirt dropped from icebergs. Anthony’s use of a graph of sea ice to try to contradict a report about ice shelves suggests that he.